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HEB 264 December: Perspectives on Stress, Parenting, and Children’s Obesity-Related Behaviors in Black Families

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Perspectives on Stress, Parenting, and Children’s Obesity-Related Behaviors in Black Families

Elizabeth P. Parks, Anne Kazak, Shiriki Kumanyika, Lisa Lewis, and Frances K. Barg

Health Education & Behavior 2016, Vol. 43(6), 632–640

Abstract

Objective. In an effort to develop targets for childhood obesity interventions in non-Hispanic-Black (Black) families, this study examined parental perceptions of stress and identified potential links among parental stress and children’s eating patterns, physical activity, and screen-time. Method. Thirty-three self-identified Black parents or grandparents of a child aged 3 to 7 years were recruited from a large, urban Black church to participate in semistructured interviews. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results. Parents/grandparents described a pathway between how stress affected them personally and their child’s eating, structured (sports/dance) and unstructured (free-play) physical activity, and screen-time usage, as well as strategies to prevent this association. Five themes emerged: stress affects parent behaviors related to food and physical activity variably; try to be healthy even with stress; parent/grandparent stress eating and parenting; stress influences family cooking, food choices, and child free-play; and screen-time use to decrease parent stress. Negative parent/grandparent response to their personal stress adversely influenced food purchases and parenting related to child eating, free-play, and screen-time. Children of parents/grandparents who ate high-fat/high-sugar foods when stressed requested these foods. In addition to structured physical activity, cooking ahead and keeping food in the house were perceived to guard against the effects of stress except during parent cravings. Parent/child screen-time helped decrease parent stress. Conclusion. Parents/grandparents responded variably to stress which affected the child eating environment, free-play, and screen-time. Family-based interventions to decrease obesity in Black children should consider how stress influences parents. Targeting parent cravings and coping strategies that utilize structure in eating and physical activity may be useful intervention strategies.


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